Keutuhan Talus Kappaphycus alvarezii saat Panen Memengaruhi Karakteristik Karaginan

muhamad firdaus, Dwi Setijawati, Eka Puji Lestari, Suyono Suyono, Faizul Amam

Abstract


Kappaphycus alvarezii adalah alga merah yang memiliki kandungan karaginan. Pemutusan tali pengikat K. alvarezii dengan cara menarik saat pemanenan mengakibatkan talus patah. Talus yang patah akan mengeluarkan getah berkandungan karaginan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan karakteristik karaginan K. alvarezii berdasar keutuhan talus yang dipanen. Talus utuh, patah dan campuran K. alvarezii diperoleh saat pelepasan rumput laut dari tali pengikat. Tahapan ekstraksi karaginan meliputi penimbangan, ekstraksi, netralisasi, perebusan, filtrasi, penjendalan, penirisan, netralisasi, pengeringan, dan penepungan. Karakteristik karaginan ditentukan berdasar kadar air, abu, abu tidak larut asam, sulfat, viskositas, kekuatan gel, dan spektrum infra merah. Analisis komponen utama pada spektra infra merah digunakan untuk membedakan karaktersitik karaginan talus. Hasil menunjukkan rendemen karaginan dari talus utuh lebih banyak dibanding patah atau campuran keduanya. Karakteristik karaginan dari ketiga talus masih memenuhi standar karaginan, yaitu: kadar air 9,91-10,87%, kadar abu 25,22-27,97%, kadar abu tidak larut asam 0,42-0,87%, kadar sulfat 19,91-24,24%, viskositas 47,11- 56,76 cP, dan kekuatan gel 376,62-457,92 g/cm². Gugus fungsional karaginan dari ketiga talus tersebut menunjukkan gugus fungsional penciri kappa karaginan yaitu ester sulfat, 3,6-anhidrogalaktosa dan galaktosa-4-sulfat. Berdasarkan analisis komponen utama spektra infra merah, talus utuh berbeda dengan talus patah atau campuran talus utuh dan patah. Kesimpulan menunjukkan karakteristik talus utuh berbeda dari talus patah atau campuran talus patah dan utuh.

 

Abstract

Kappaphycus alvarezii is a red alga containing carrageenan. Termination of the K. alvarezii binding rope by pulling during harvesting resulted in a broken thallus. A broken thallus will release sap containing carrageenan. This study aims to obtain the characteristics of K. alvarezii carrageenan based on the integrity of the thallus harvested. Whole, broken and mixed thallus of K. alvarezii were obtained when the seaweed was released from the strings. The stages of carrageenan extraction include weighing, extraction, neutralization, boiling, filtration, coagulation, draining, neutralization, drying and flouring. Characteristics of carrageenan are determined based on water content, ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulphate, viscosity, gel strength, and infrared spectrum. Principal component analysis in infrared spectra was used to distinguish the characteristics of thallus carrageenan. The results showed that carrageenan yield from intact thallus was higher than broken or a mixture of both. The carrageenan characteristics of the three thalli still met carrageenan standards, namely: water content 9.91-10.87%, ash content 25.22-27.97%, acid insoluble ash content 0.42-0.87%, sulphate content 19.91-24.24%, viscosity 47.11-56.76cP, and gel strength 376.62-457.92 g/cm². The carrageenan functional groups of the three thalli showed the functional groups that characterize kappa carrageenan, namely sulphate esters, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, and galactose-4-sulphate. Based on the analysis of the principal component of the infrared spectra, an intact thallus is different from a broken thallus or a mixture of the intact and broken thallus. The conclusion shows that the characteristics of the intact thallus are different from a broken thallus or a mixture of the broken and intact thallus.


Keywords


karaginan; Kappaphycus alvarezii; talus

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v18i1.910

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