Pengujian Organoleptik dan Deteksi Logam Berat pada Bahan Baku dan Produk Bakso Ikan Lemuru (Sardinella lemuru) dari Selat Bali

Resti Nurmala Dewi, I Gusti Ayu Budiadnyani, Desy Febrianti, Dewi Fridolin Putrivenn

Abstract


Ikan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru) merupakan sumberdaya perikanan yang melimpah di Selat Bali dan memiliki nilai ekonomis yang rendah. Untuk menanggulangi permasalahan tersebut, ikan lemuru dapat diolah menjadi produk diversifikasi yang banyak digemari masyarakat yaitu bakso ikan. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memproduksi bakso ikan lemuru dengan empat konsentrasi daging dan tepung tapioka (P0, P1, P2, dan P3). Tingkat penerimaan konsumen dianalisis melalui pengujian organoleptik menggunakan 30 panelis tidak terlatih. Pengujian logam berat sebagai salah satu jaminan keamanan produk dilakukan menggunakan metode Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Hal ini dikarenakan wilayah penangkapan ikan lemuru di Selat Bali merupakan wilayah perairan yang mengalami banyak pencemaran akibat kegiatan penangkapan ikan dan industri. Hasil pengujian organoleptik pada bahan baku menunjukkan nilai rata-rata delapan untuk seluruh atribut yang menandakan bahwa ikan lemuru berada dalam kondisi segar. Kandungan logam berat pada bahan baku juga masih di bawah ambang batas menurut Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). Disamping itu, penambahan daging ikan lemuru dan tepung tapioka memberikan hasil yang signifikan terhadap nilai organoleptik dengan formulasi terbaik (P1) sebesar 7,34 (kenampakan), 7,92 (bau), 8,36 (rasa) dan 7,85 (tekstur) (p<0,05). Konsentrasi logam berat pada bakso ikan tidak dipengaruhi oleh penambahan tepung dan berada di bawah ambang batas dengan konsentrasi (mg/kg) pada perlakukan terbaik (P1) sebesar 0,007±0,0010 (Hg) (p<0,05), 0,0010±0,0010 (Pb) (p>0.05) dan 0,0020±0,0013 (Cd) (p>0,05). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa produk bakso ikan lemuru disukai oleh konsumen dan memiliki konsentrasi logam berat pada rentang yang aman.


ABSTRACT


Lemuru fish (Sardinella lemuru) is one dominant commodity from the Bali Strait which has low economic value. To solve this issue, lemuru can be converted into a variety of widely-liked products, such fish balls. Therefore, this study aimed to produce fish balls with four concentrations of meat and tapioca flour (P0, P1, P2 ,and P3). The level of consumer acceptance was analysed through organoleptic testing employing 30 untrained panelists. The heavy metal of samples was also analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). This is due the current fishing activities and industries in the Bali Strait contribute to heavy metals pollution in the water. The organoleptic testing of raw materials revealed an average value of eight for all aspects, which suggested that lemuru was in fresh conditions. The content of heavy metals in raw materials was below standards issued by Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Furthermore, the addition of lemuru meat and tapioca flour was significantly affected the quality of fish ball, with organoleptic scores obtained from the best treatment (P1) were 7.85 (texture), 8.36 (taste), 7.92 (smell), and 7.34 (appearance) (p<0.05). The concentration of heavy metals in fish balls was not influenced by the addition of flour and was below the threshold with the concentrations (mg/kg) of 0.007±0.0010 (Hg) (p<0.05), 0.0010±0.0010 (Pb) (p>0.05) and 0.0020±0.0013 (Cd) (p>0.05). In conclusion, lemuru fish ball was preferred by customers and had heavy metal concentrations that were within a safe limit.


Keywords


bakso ikan; ikan lemuru; logam berat; organoleptik; Selat Bali

References


Abrian, S., & Maulid, D. (2020). Analisis proksimat dan logam berat pada tempe dengan penambahan tepung ikan. Jurnal Marlin, 1(2), 83–91.

Abubakar, M. I.-O., & Adeshina, I. (2019). Heavy metals contamination in the tissues of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) obtained from two earthen dams (Asa and University of Ilorin Dams) in Kwara State of Nigeria. Harran Üniv Vet Fak Derg, 8(1), 26–32.

Afrianto, (2021). Studi penerimaan konsumen terhadap bakso kerang darah (Anadara granosa) dengan jumlah bahan pengikat berbeda. Skripsi, Universitas Riau, Riau.

Afrizki, O. Y. (2018). Analisis kadar timbal pada ikan mujair (Oreochromsis mossambicus) di Sungai Lesti Kabupaten Malang dengan menggunakan metode spektroskopi serapan atom (SSA). Skripsi, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang.

Alam, M., Rohani, M., & Hossain, M. (2023). Heavy metals accumulation in some important fish species cultured in commercial fish farm of Natore, Bangladesh and possible health risk evaluation. Emerging Contaminants, 9(4), https://doi.org/100254. 10.1016/j.emcon.2023.100254

Alhaq, F. F. Z., Haryati, S., Surilayani, D., & Munandar, A. (2022). Komposisi proksimat dan penerimaan hedonik bakso ikan malingping komersial. Jurnal Agribisnis Perikanan, 15(2), 791–801.

Andayani, T., Yusuf, H., & Rini, Y. (2014). Minyak atsiri daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) sebagai pengawet alami pada ikan teri (Steplophorus indicus). Jurnal Bioproses Komoditas Tropis, 2(2), 123–130.

Arantes, F. P., Savassi, L. A., Santos, H. B., Gomes, M. V. T., & Bazzoli, N. (2016). Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88(1), 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620140434

Ardillah, Y. (2016). Risk factors of blood lead level. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, 7(3), 150–155. https://doi.org/10.26553/jikm.2016.7.3.150-155

Arifin, Z., Yulianda, F., & Imran, Z. (2019). Analisis keanekaragaman biota laut sebagai daya tarik wisata underwater macro photography (UMP) di Perairan Tulamben, Bali. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 11(2), 335–346. https://doi.org/10.29244/jitkt.v11i2.23383

Arrazy, M., & Primadini, R. (2021). Potensi subsektor perikanan pada provinsi-provinsi di Indonesia. Jurnal Bina Bangsa Ekonomika, 14(1), 1–13.

Assogba, M. F., Anihouvi, E. L., Adinsi, L., Boukary, B., Kpoclou, Y. E., Mahillon, J., Scippo, M., Hounhouigan, D. J., & Anihouvi, V. B. (2021). Sensory profiling of meat and fish products obtained by traditional grilling, smoking and smoking-drying processes. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 30(4), 378-391. https://doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2021.1888833

Astuti, R. T., Darmanto, Y. S., & Wijayanti, I. (2014). Pengaruh penambahan isolat protein kedelai terhadap karakteristik bakso dari surimi ikan swangi (Priacanthus tayenus). Jurnal Pengolahan dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan, 3(3), 47–54.

Authman, M. M. (2015). Use of fish as bio-indicator of the effects of heavy metals pollution. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9546.1000328

Aziza, T., Affandi, D. R., & Manuhara, G. J. (2015). Bakso ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis) dengan filler tepung gembili sebagai fortifikan inulin. Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, 8(2), 77. https://doi.org/10.20961/jthp.v0i0.12894

Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM). (2022). Peraturan BPOM nomor 9 tentang persyaratan cemaran logam berat dalam pangan olahan. Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan. Jakarta.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2021). Statistik Perusahaan Perikanan. Badan Pusat Statistik. Jakarta.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). (2022). Kabupaten Jembrana dalam angka. Badan Pusat Statistik. Jakarta.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional (BSN). (2011). SNI-01-2346-2011 tentang petunjuk pengujian organoleptik dan atau sensori pada produk perikanan. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2011). SNI 2354.5:2011 tentang cara uji kimia – bagian 5: penentuan kadar logam berat timbal (Pb) dan kadmium (Cd) pada produk perikanan. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2017). SNI 7266:2017 tentang bakso ikan. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2013). SNI 2729:2013 tentang ikan segar. Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. (2016). SNI 2354.6:2016 cara uji kimia - bagian 6: penentuan kadar logam berat merkuri (Hg). Badan Standardisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Balai Karantina Ikan, Pengendalian Mutu dan Keamanan Hasil Perikanan Denpasar. (2021). K7.1.14.2/INTEGRASI/DPS tentang instruksi kerja pengujian logam berat.

Barros, M. R., Menezes, T. M., da Silva, L. P., Pires, D. S., Princival, J. L., Seabra, G., & Neves, J. L. (2019). Furan inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and impact on B16F10 cell toxicity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 136, 1034–1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.120

Bielak, E., & Marcinkowska, E. (2022). Heavy metals in leathers, artificial leathers, and textiles in the context of quality and safety of use. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 5061. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08911-9

Bridgestock, L. (2023). Lead contamination of the deep Pacific Ocean via exchange with sinking particles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 120(26). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2308014120

Brillyana, S. (2022). Kualitas konsentrat protein ikan dari ikan selangat (Anodontostoma chacunda), ikan seluang (Rasbora argyrotaenia) dan ikan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru). Skripsi, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin.

Caksana, M. U., Aritonang, A. B., Risko, Muliadi, & Sofiana, M. S. J. (2021). Analisis kandungan logam berat Pb, Cd dan Hg pada ikan di Pantai Samudra Indah Kabupaten Bengkayang. Jurnal Laut Khatulistiwa, 4(3), 109–118.

Carter, B. G., & Drake, M. A. (2018). Invited review: The effects of processing parameters on the flavor of whey protein ingredients. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(8), 6691–6702. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-14571

Carvalho, T. L. A. de B., Do-Nascimento, A. A., Gonçalves, C. F. D. S., Dos-Santos, M. A. J., & Sales, A. (2020). Assessing the histological changes in fish gills as environmental bioindicators in Paraty and Sepetiba bays in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 48(4), 590–601. https://doi.org/10.3856/vol48-issue4-fulltext-2351

Chiarelli, R., Martino, C., & Rochheri, M. C. (2019). Cadmium stress effects indicating marine pollution in different species of sea urchin employed as environmental bioindicators. Cell Stress and Chaperones, 24(4), 675-687. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-019-01010-1

Chunhabundit, R. (2016). Cadmium exposure and potential health risk from foods in contaminated area, Thailand. Toxicological Research, 32(1), 65–72. https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2016.32.1.065

Dewi, R. N. (2023). Occupational health and safety risk analysis using AS/NZS standard 4360:2004 in the fish meatball industry. Journal of Industrial Engineering: Research and Application, 25(1), 31–41.

Dewi, R. N., & Farida, I. (2023). Pengaruh suhu penerimaan sampel dan bentuk olahan ikan tuna (Thunnus sp.) terhadap kadar histamin menggunakan metode elisa. Buletin Jalanidhitah Sarva Jivitam, 5(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.15578/bjsj.v5i1.12423

Domínguez, R., Pateiro, M., Gagaoua, M., Barba, F. J., Zhang, W., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2019). A comprehensive review on lipid oxidation in meat and meat products. Antioxidants, 8(10), 429. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100429

Emon, F. J., Rohani, M. F., Sumaiya, N., Tuj Jannat, M. F., Akter, Y., Shahjahan, M., Kari, Z. A., Tahiluddin, A. B., & Goh, K. W. (2023). Bioaccumulation and bioremediation of heavy metals in fishes—a review. Toxics, 11(6), 510. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060510

Faciu, M. E., Lazar, I., Ifrim, I., Ureche, C., & Lazar, G. (2014). Exploratory spatial data analysis of heavy metals concentration in two sampling sites on Siret River. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13(9), 2179–2186. https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2014.242

Febriyanto, Y., Perwira, I. Y., & Sari, A. H. W. (2022). Perbandingan kandungan logam berat pada sedimen di kawasan hutan mangrove Perancak dan Tahura Ngurah Rai. Current Trends in Aquatic Science, 5(1), 34–39.

Ghazali, M., Rabbani, R., Sari, M., Rohman, Muh. H., Nasiruddin, M. H., Suherman, S., & Nurhayati, N. (2021). Pelatihan pengolahan kerupuk ikan di Desa Ekas Buana Kecamatan Jerowaru Kabupaten Lombok Timur. Jurnal Pengabdian Magister Pendidikan IPA, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.29303/jpmpi.v4i2.683

Ghifari, F., Santoso, A., & Suprijanto, J. (2022). Potensi risiko kesehatan manusia akibat konsumsi Perna viridis yang mengandung kadmium. Journal of Marine Research, 11(1), 19–29. https://doi.org/10.14710/jmr.v11i1.32338

Gustini, S. K., & Ari, H. Y. (2014). Kualitas ikan kembung (Rastrelliger kanagurta) setelah perendaman dalam kitosan ditinjau dari aspek mikrobiologi dan organoleptik. Jurnal Protobiont, 3(2), 100–105.

He, Y., Fang, H., Pan, X., Zhu, B., Chen, J., Wang, J., Zhang, R., Chen, L., Qi, X., & Zhang, H. (2023). Cadmium exposure in aquatic products and health risk classification assessment in residents of Zhejiang, China. Foods, 12(16), 3094. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163094

Hezbullah, M., Sultana, S., Chakraborty, S. R., & Patwary, M. I. (2016). Heavy metal contamination of food in a developing country like Bangladesh: An emerging threat to food safety. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 8(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5897/JTEHS2016.0352

Huzairiah, M., Nugraha, M. A., & Pamungkas, A. (2022). Kontaminasi logam berat timbal (Pb) dan kadmium (Cd) pada sedimen estuari baturusa, Kota Pangkalpinang. Journal of Tropical Marine Science, 5(1), 19–29. https://doi.org/10.33019/jour.trop.mar.sci.v5i1.2558

Isangedighi, I. A., & David, G. S. (2019). Heavy metals contamination in fish: effects on human health. Journal of Aquatic Science and Marine Biology, 2(4), 7-12. https://doi.org/10.22259/2638-5481.0204002

Jamila, P. (2021). Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of sardine, Sardinella longiceps and Sardinella fimbriata of South East Coast of India. Food Science & Nutrition Technology. 6(4), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.23880/fsnt-16000272

Karim, M., & Aspari, D. (2014). Pengaruh penambahan tepung karagenan terhadap mutu kekenyalan bakso ikan gabus. Jurnal Batik Diwa, 6(2), 41–49.

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan. (2022). Rilis data kelautan dan perikanan tahun 2022. https://sosek.info/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/Rilis-Data-Kelautan-dan-Perikanan-Triwulan-IV-Tahun-2022-1

Kimáková, T., Kuzmová, L., Nevolná, Z., & Bencko, V. (2018). Fish and fish products as risk factors of mercury exposure. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 25(3), 488–493. https://doi.org/10.26444/aaem/84934

Kragulj, T., Purić, M., Bursić, V., Đukić, M., Vuković, G., Puvača, N., & Petrović, A. (2018). Lead contamination of fish and water from coastal sea of Barregion (Montenegro). Journal of Agronomy, Technology and Engineering Management, 1(1), 124–129.

Lauteri, C., Ferri, G., & Pennisi, L. (2023). A quality index method-based evaluation of sensory quality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and its shelf-life determination. Italian Journal of Food Safety, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2023.10927

Lim, Y.-C., Chen, C.-F., Tsai, M.-L., Wu, C.-H., Lin, Y.-L., Wang, M.-H., Albarico, F. P. J. B., Chen, C.-W., & Dong, C.-D. (2022). Impacts of fishing vessels on the heavy metal contamination in sediments: a case study of Qianzhen Fishing Port in Southern Taiwan. Water, 14(7), 1174. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071174

Mailoa, M. N., Savitri, I. K. E., Lokollo, E., & Kdise, S. S. (2020). Mutu organoleptik ikan layang (Decapterus sp.) segar selama penjualan di pasar tradisional Kota Ambon. Majalah BIAM, 16(1), 36–44.

Malik, D. P., Yusuf, S., & Willem, I. (2021). Analisis kandungan logam berat timbal (Pb) pada air laut dan sedimen di Perairan Tanggul Soreang Kota Parepare. Jurnal Ilmiah Manusia Dan Kesehatan, 4(1), 135–145.

Mardani, N. P. S., Restu, I. W., & Sari, A. H. W. (2018). Kandungan logam berat timbal (Pb) dan kadmium (Cd) pada badan air dan ikan di perairan Teluk Benoa, Bali. Current Trends in Aquatic Science, 1(1), 106–113.

Mukharromah. (2015). Penentuan kadar merkuri (Hg) dalam ikan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru) menggunakan dekstruksi basah secara spektroskopi serapan atom uap dingin (SSA-UD). Skirpsi, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang.

Nisa, A. K. (2015). Penentuan kadar merkuri dalam kerang hijau (Perna viridis) menggunakan dekstruksi refluks secara spektroskopi serapan atom uap dingin (SSA-UD). Skripsi, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang.

Noor, R. J., Kabangnga, A., & Fathuddin. (2021). Distribusi spasial dan faktor kontaminasi logam berat di pesisir Kota Makassar. Jurnal Kelautan Tropis, 24(1), 93–101.

Noviansyah, E., Batu, L., Floranthus, D. T., & Setyobudiandi, I. (2021). Kandungan logam kadmium (Cd) pada air laut, sedimen, dan kerang hijau di perairan Tambak Lorok dan Perairan Morosari. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 26(1), 128–135. https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.26.1.128

Nurhidayati. (2020). Identifikasi pencemaran logam berat di sekitar Pelabuhan Lembar menggunakan analisa parameter fisika dan kimia. Universitas Islam Negeri, Mataram.

Nurhuda, H. S., Junianto, & Rochima, E. (2017). Penambahan tepung karaginan terhadap tingkat kesukaan bakso ikan manyung. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan, 8(1), 157–164.

Opasola, O. A., Adeolu, A. T., Iyanda, A. Y., Adewoye, S. O., & Olawale, S. A. (2019). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) in Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara State. Journal of Health and Pollution, 9(21), 190303. https://doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-9.21.190303

Pandey, G. (2017). Environmental mercury toxicity in fish: an overview. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 6(1), 295–303.

Pariansyah, A., Herliany, N. E., & Negara B.F.S.P. (2018). Aplikasi maserat buah mangrove Avicennia marina sebagai pengawet alami ikan nila segar. Acta Aquatica: Aquatic Sciences Journal, 5(1), 36–44.

Paula, A. M., & Conti-Silva, A. C. (2014). Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 121, 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.08.007

Peraturan Pemerintah. (2004). Keamanan, Mutu dan Gizi Pangan.

Pertami, N. D., Rahardjo, M. F., Damar, A., & Nurjaya, I. W. (2020). Ikan lemuru, primadona perikanan Selat Bali yang menghilang. Warta Iktiologi, 4(1), 1–7.

Pramiastuti, O., & Rejeki, D. S. (2021). Kandungan Cd dan Cu pada Sungai Gung, Sibelis, dan Kemiri di Wilayah Tegal. Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Kesehatan Bhamada, 12(1), 55–59.

Putra, M. D. N., Widada, S., & Atmodjo, W. (2021). Studi kandungan logam berat timbal (Pb) pada sedimen dasar perairan Banjir Kanal Timur Semarang. Indonesia Journal of Oceanography, 4(3), 13–21.

Putri, H. D., Elfidasari, D., Haninah, & Sugoro, I. (2022). Bahaya kandungan logam berat (Cd, Hg, Pb) pada produk olahan Pterygoplichthys pardalis asal Sungai Ciliwung Jakarta Bagi Kesehatan Manusia. Jurnal Pengolahan Pangan, 7(1), 7–13.

Rachmaningrum, M., Wardhani, E., & Pharmawati, K. (2015). Konsentrasi logam berat kadmium (Cd) pada perairan Sungai Citraum hulu segmen Dayeuhkolot-Nanjung. Jurnal Online Institut Teknologi Nasional, 3(1), 1–11.

Rahussidi, M. A., Sumardianto, & Wijayanti, I. (2016). Pengaruh perbandingan konsentrasi tepung tapioka (Manihot uttilissima) dan tepung kentang (Solanum Tuberosum) terhadap kualitas bakso ikan lele (Clarias batrachus). Jurnal Pengolahan Dan Bioteknologi Hasil Perikanan, 5(3), 17–24.

Ramadhan, F. (2021). Profil kandungan kimia dari minyak atsiri kulit buah dan daun jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) serta aktivitas antibakterinya. Universitas Andalas.

Rice, K. M., Walker, E. M., Wu, M., Gillette, C., & Blough, E. R. (2014). Environmental mercury and its toxic effects. Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, 47(2), 74–83. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.74

Ruaeny, T. A., Hariyanto, S., & Soegianto, A. (2015). Contamination of copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead in fish species captured from Bali Strait, Indonesia, and potential risks to human health. Cah. Biol. Mar, 56, 89–95.

Ruiz-Capillas, C., & Herrero, A. M. (2021). Sensory analysis and consumer research in new product development. Foods, 10(3), 582. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030582

Salam, F., Liputo, S. A., & Une, S. (2021). Pengaruh penambahan daun jeruk purut (Citrus hyrstix D.C) terhadap kerusakan abon ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinnis) selama penyimpanan. Jambura Journal of Food Technology, 3(2), 27–37.

Santos, H. O., May, T. L., & Bueno, A.A. (2023). Eating more sardines instead of fish oil supplementation: Beyond omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, a matrix of nutrients with cardiovascular benefits. Frontiers in Nutrition, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1107475

Sarofa, U., L. A., Wicaksono, A. I., & Wayuni. (2022). Pengaruh konsentrasi tapioka dan margarin terhadap karakteristik patty burger keong sawah (Pila ampullacea). Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Tropis dan Biosistem, 10(2), 101–107.

Sartimbul, A., Amandani, J. A., Yona, D., & Fuad, M. A. Z. (2021). Mercury content of Sardinella lemuru caught in East Java and Bali waters. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1869(1), 012004. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1869/1/012004

Shahidi, F., & Hossain, A. (2022). Role of lipids in food flavor generation. Molecules, 27(15), 5014. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27155014

Shahjahan, M., Taslima, K., Rahman, M. S., Al-Emran, M., Alam, S. I., & Faggio, C. (2022). Effects of heavy metals on fish physiology – a review. Chemosphere, 300, 134519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134519

Shi, W., Zhao, X., Han, Y., Che, Z., Chai, X., & Liu, G. (2016). Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 20197. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep20197

Silva, F., Duarte, A. M., Mendes, S., Magalhaes, E., Pinto, F. R., Barroso, S., Neves, A., Sequeira, V., Vieira, A. R., & Gordo, L. (2020). Seasonal sensory evaluation of low commercial value or unexploited fish species from the Portuguese Coast. Foods, 9(12), 1880. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/foods9121880

Simionov, I.-A., Cristea, V., Petrea, Ş.-M., Sîrbu, E. (Bocioc), Coadă, M. T., & Cristea, D. S. (2016). The presence of heavy metals in fish meat from Danube River: an overview. AACL Bioflux, 9(1), 1388–1399.

Sinaga, D. D., Herpandi, & Nopianti, R. (2017). Karakterisitik bakso ikan patin (Pangasius pangasius) dengan penambahan karagenan, isolat protein kedelai, dan sodium tripolyphospat. FishtecH - Jurnal Teknologi Hasil Perikanan, 6(1), 1–13.

Smith, S. A., Newman, S. J., Coleman, M. P., & Alex, C. (2018). Characterization of the histologic appearance of normal gill tissue using special staining techniques. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 30(5), 688–698. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638718791819

Suciati, I. (2017). Perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) dengan daun salam (Syzygium polyanthum wight) terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus epidermidis dan pemanfaatanya sebagai buku ilmiah populer. Skripsi, Universitas Jember, Jember.

Sudarmanto, F. M., & Setiawan, I. (2022). Penelitian mutu secara organoleptik ikan patin (Pangasius sp.) segar di Pasar Bauntung, Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan. Food Scientia Journal of Science and Technology, 2(1), 85–98.

Susilo, E., Kresnabayu, I. M., & Swastan, I. G. A. (2021). Peta lokasi penangkapan ikan lemuru di Selat Bali. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Research, 5(2), 402–409.

Utari, S. P. S. D., & Dewi, R. N. (2022). Analysis of histamin content in loin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in Denpasar, Bali. Jurnal Terubuk, 50(3), 1686-1689.

Syafitri, Metusalach, & Fahrul. (2016). Studi kualitas ikan segar secara organoleptik yang dipasarkan di Kabupaten Jeneponto. Jurnal IPTEKS PSP, 3(6), 544–552.

Velusamy, S., Roy, A., Sundaram, S., & Kumar Mallick, T. (2021). A review on heavy metal ions and containing dyes removal through graphene oxide‐based adsorption strategies for textile wastewater treatment. The Chemical Record, 21(7), 1570–1610. https://doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202000153

Wahyu, Y. I., Ariadi, P. S., & Sayuti, dan J. (2019). Penilaian mutu secara organoleptik ikan cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis) di Pelabuhan Perikanan Pantai Pondokdadap Kabupaten Malang. Samakia: Jurnal Ilmu Perikanan, 10(2), 66–72.

Wang, S., Yang, F., Wu, Y., Jiang, Q., Xu, Y., Yu, P., Gao, P., Yu, D., & Xia, W. (2023). Effect of sugar reduction on sensory characteristics of dried fish mince product. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.13046

Warsito, W., Palungan, M. H., & Utomo, E. P. (2017). Profiling study of the major and minor components of lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) in the fractional distillation process. Pan African Medical Journal, 27. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.27.282.9679

Wudianto, & Wujdi, A. (2014). Variasi ukuran ikan lemuru (Sardinella Lemuru Bleeker,1853) secara temporal dan spasial di perairan Selat Bali. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia, 20(1), 9–17.

Yona, D., Sari, S. H. J., Kretarta, A., Effendy, C. R. P., Aini, M. N., & As`Adi, dan M. A. (2018). Distribusi dan status kontaminasi logam berat pada sedimen di sepanjang pantai barat perairan Selat Bali, Banyuwangi. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Science, 1(2), 21–30.

Yunita, E., Rahmaniah, & Fitriyanti. (2017). Analisis potensi dan karakteristik limbah padat fly ash dan bottom ash hasil dari pembakaran batubara pada pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU) PT. Semen Tonasa. Jurnal Fisika dan Terapannya, 4(1), 93–106.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v18i2.973

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 355 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) - 170 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JPBKP adalah Jurnal Ilmiah yang terindeks :


Creative Commons License

ISSN : 1907-9133(print), ISSN : 2406-9264(online)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.