Potensi Ekstrak Daun Lindur (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli

Rahmawati Rahmawati, Tati Nurhayati, Nurjanah Nurjanah

Abstract


Tanaman lindur (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman mangrove yang dapat tumbuh pada kondisi salinitas rendah dan aerasi yang baik. Ekstrak lindur memiliki kandungan senyawa fitokimia sehingga berpotensi diaplikasikan sebagai antibakteri pada bidang pangan maupun kesehatan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi potensi antibakteri dari ekstrak daun tanaman lindur terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 dan Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. Metode pengujian yang digunakan adalah ekstraksi bertingkat menggunakan proses maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat, dan etanol. Ekstrak yang diperoleh kemudian dilakukan uji fitokimia dan uji aktivitas antibakteri dengan metode difusi agar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rendemen ekstrak n-heksana, ekstrak etil asetat, dan ekstrak etanol adalah sebesar 1,93%, 3,56%, dan 7,36%. Ekstrak n-heksana mengandung steroid, triterpenoid, dan flavonoid, ekstrak etil asetat mengandung steroid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, dan fenol hidrokuinon, dan ekstrak etanol mengandung steroid, flavonoid, saponin, fenol hidrokuinon, dan tanin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hanya ekstrak etil asetat yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri S. aureus ATCC 6538 dan bakteri E. coli ATCC 8739. Efektivitas tertinggi terdeteksi pada bakteri S. aureus ATCC 6538 yang tergolong ke dalam bakteri Gram positif, dengan diameter zona bening berkisar 3-8 mm, pada rentang jam ke-11 sampai jam ke-19. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak etil asetat yang mengandung senyawa polar dan non polar dari tanaman lindur memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai antibakteri.

 

Abstract

Lindur plant (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) is one type of mangrove plant that can grow in conditions    of low salinity and good aeration. Lindur extract contains phytochemical compounds so that it has   the potential to be applied as an antibacterial in the food and health sectors. This study was aimed    at evaluating the antibacterial potency of lindur plant leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The test method used was stratified extraction using maceration with n-hexane solvents, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The extract obtained was then carried out phytochemical tests as well as antibacterial activity tests with the agar diffusion method. The results indicated that the yield of n-hexane extract, ethyl acetate extract, and ethanol extract were 1,93%, 3,56%, and 7,36%. N-hexane extract contains steroids, triterpenoids, and flavonoids, ethyl acetate extract contains steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and phenol hydroquinone, and ethanol extract contains steroids, flavonoids, saponins, phenol hydroquinone, and tannins. The result also depicted that only in ethyl acetate extract can inhibit the growth of S. aureus ATCC 6538 and E. coli ATCC 8739. The highest effectiveness was observed in the S. aureus ATCC 6538 which belongs to Gram-positive bacteria, with a clear zone diameter ranging from 3-8 mm, in the range of the 11th to the 19th hour. This study concluded that that ethyl acetate extract containing polar and nonpolar compounds from lindur plants are potential to be developed as an antibacterial.



Keywords


antibakteri; daun lindur; ekstrak; Escherichia coli ATCC 8739; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v18i2.933

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