Pengaruh Suhu Ekstraksi Terhadap Karakteristik Gelatin dari Sisik Ikan Lates calcarifer dan Oreochromis niloticus

Hariyanti Hariyanti, Khusnun Nafi’ah, Nur Azizah, Sri Nevi Gantini

Abstract


Indonesia merupakan produsen ikan terbesar dari produk kelautan dan budidaya air tawar. Sisik ikan merupakan limbah ikan yang telah banyak dipelajari pemanfaatannya, salah satunya untuk pembuatan gelatin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu ekstraksi yang berbeda terhadap kualitas gelatin sisik ikan air laut (Lates calcarifer/kakap putih), dan ikan air tawar (Oreochromis niloticus/nila merah). Metode penelitian ini adalah membandingkan kualitas gelatin dengan ekstraksi menggunakan teknologi sonikasi dengan variasi suhu ekstraksi, yaitu 55, 60, dan 65 °C. Gelatin dari sisik kakap putih dengan suhu ekstraksi sonikasi pada 60 °C memiliki rendemen tertinggi sebesar 14,79%, dengan kadar air 10,61%, kadar abu 1,79%, pH 4,86, viskositas 4,41cps, dan kandungan Cu dan Zn masing-masing sebesar 4,61, dan 2,99 mg/kg. Gelatin dari sisik nila merah dengan suhu ekstraksi sonikasi pada 65 °C memiliki rendemen tertinggi sebesar 11,62% dengan kadar air sebesar 9,05%, kadar abu sebesar 2,70%, pH 5,09, viskositas 1,61cps, dan kandungan Cu dan Zn masingmasing sebesar 11,88 mg/kg dan 2,59 mg/kg. Hasil karakterisasi gelatin kedua sisik ikan tersebut mengikuti standar SNI dan GMIA. Rendemen gelatin sisik ikan air laut (14,79%) mempunyai nilai lebih besar dibandingkan gelatin sisik ikan air tawar (11,62%). Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa kedua jenis ikan tersebut menghasilkan gelatin yang memenuhi syarat standar dan suhu ekstraksi
memberikan pengaruh rendemen terhadap hasil gelatin kedua ikan.

 

Abstract

Indonesia is the largest fish producer derived from marine products and freshwater aquaculture. Fish scales are fish waste that has been studied for its utilization, one of which is for gelatine manufacture. This study aims to determine the effect of different extraction temperatures on the quality of gelatine scales of seawater fish (Lates calcarifer/white snapper), and freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus/red tilapia). This research method compares gelatine quality with extraction using sonication technology with extraction temperature variations, namely 55, 60, and 65 °C. Gelatine from white snapper scales with extraction temperature by sonication at 60 °C has the highest yield of 14.79%, with water content of 10.61%, ash content of 1.79%, pH of 4.86, viscosity of 4.41cps, and content of Cu and Zn respectively of 4.61, and 2.99 mg/kg. Gelatine from red tilapia scales with extraction temperature by sonication at 65 °C has the highest yield of 11.62%, with water content of 9.05%, ash content of 2.70%, pH of 5.09, the viscosity of 1.61cps, and content of Cu and Zn was 11.88 mg/kg and 2.59 mg/kg, respectively. The results of this study can conclude that the two types of fish produce gelatine that meets the standard requirements, and the extraction temperature affects the gelatine yield of the two fish.





Keywords


gelatin sisik ikan; Lates calcarifer; Oreochromis niloticus; sonikasi; perasan jeruk nipis

References


Ahmad, T., Ismail, A., Ahmad, S., Khalil, K., Leo, T., Awad, E., Imlan, J., & Sazili, A. (2018). Effects of ultrasound assisted extraction in conjugation with aid of actinidin on the molecular and physicochemical properties of bovine hide gelatin. Molecules, 23(4), 730. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040730

Al-Saidi, G. S., Al-Alawi, A., Rahman, M. S., & Guizani, N. (2012). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of extracted gelatin from shaari (Lithrinus microdon) skin: effects of extraction conditions. International Food Research Journal, 19(3).

Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN). (1995). Mutu dan cara uji gelatin (SNI 01-3735-1995). Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Jakarta

Bhernama, G. B. (2020). Gelatin dari tulang ikan kakap putih (Lates calcarifer) dengan variasi konsentrasi asam HCl. Jurnal Sains Natural, 10(2), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.31938/JSN.V10I2.282

Candani, D., Ulfah, M., Noviana, W., & Zainul, R. (2018). A Review Pemanfaatan Teknologi Sonikasi.

Das, M. P., Suguna, P. R., Prasad, K. A. R. P. U. R. A. M., Vijaylakshmi, J. V., & Renuka, M. (2017). Extraction and characterization of gelatin: a functional biopolymer. Int., J., Pharm., Pharm., Sci, 9(9), 239. https://doi.org/10.22159/IJPPS.2017V9I9.17618

Du, L., Keplová, L., Khiari, Z., & Betti, M. (2014). Preparation and characterization of gelatin from collagen biomass obtained through a pH-shifting process of mechanically separated turkey meat. Poultry Science, 93(4), 989–1000. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03609

Erizal, E., Sudirman, S., Hariyanti, H., & lukitowati, F. (2018). Kopolimerisasi cangkok poli(kaliumakrilat)- gelatin hasil iradiasi gamma. Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia, 19(4), 139–146. https://doi.org/10.17146/JSMI.2018.19.4.4963

Gaspar-Pintiliescu, A., Stefan, L. M., Anton, E. D., Berger, D., Matei, C., Negreanu-Pirjol, T., & Moldovan, L. (2019). Physicochemical and biological properties of gelatin extracted from marine snail Rapana venosa. Marine Drugs, 17(10), 589. https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100589

GMIA. (2019). Booklet - GMIA. http://www.gelatin-gmia.com/booklet.html

Harianto, H., Tazwir, T., & Peranginangin, R. (2008). Studi teknik pengeringan gelatin ikan dengan alat pengering kabinet. Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan, 3(1).

Hariyanti, Erizal, Mustikarani, E., Lestari, I., & Lukitowati, F. (2022). In vitro release of metformin HCl from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - gelatin hydrogels prepared by gamma irradiation. Atom Indonesia, 48(1), 37–43. https://doi.org/10.17146/aij.2022.1123

Herpandi, Huda, N., & Adzitey, F. (2011). Fish Bone and Scale as a Potential Source of Halal Gelatin. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 6, 379-389. https://doi.org/10.3923/jfas.2011.379.389

Irvan, M., Darmanto, Y. S., & Purnamayati, L. (2019). The effect of gelatin addition from various fish skin to the physical and chemical properties of chikuwa. Jurnal Ilmu Pangan Dan Hasil Pertanian, 3(1), 78–93. https://doi.org/10.26877/jiphp.v3i1.3796

Ismail, I., Hamzah, N., Qurrataayyun, S., Rahayu, S., Tahir, K., & Djide, M. (2019, June 17). Extraction and characteristic of gelatin from milkfish (Chanos chanos) scales and bones with variation in acid and base concentrations, extracting and drying method. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.2-5-2019.2284683

Jannah, A., Maunatin, A., Windayanti, A., Findianti, Y., Mufidah, Z., Kimia, J., Sains, F., Uin, T., Malik, M., & Malang, I. (2013). Isolasi dan karakterisasi gelatin dari tulang ayam dengan metode asam. Alchemy 2(3), 184-189.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia (Kemkes RI). (2020). Farmakope Indonesia Edisi VI. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Sari, D. K., Darmanto, Y. S., & Amalia, U. (2017). Pemanfaatan limbah hasil perikanan: lem ikan berbahan baku sisik ikan yang berbeda. Jurnal Ilmu Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian, 1(2), 60-71.

Momchev, P., Ciganović, P., Jug, M., Marguí, E., Jablan, J., & Končić, M. Z. (2020). Comparison of maceration and ultrasonication for green extraction of phenolic acids from Echinacea purpurea aerial parts. Molecules, 25(21). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215142

Muralidharan, N., Jeya Shakila, R., Sukumar, D., & Jeyasekaran, G. (2013). Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50(6), 1106–1113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0440-y

Pechsiri, J., Panritdam, T., Chainapong, T., & Yooyen, T. (2020). Fillet quality of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) grown in monoculture and coculture systems in freshwater earthen-ponds. Asian Fisheries Science, 33(1), 23–30. https://doi.org/10.33997/j.afs.2020.33.1.003

Puspawati, G. A. K. D., Marsono, Y., Supriyadi, S., & Armunanto, R. (2019). Comparison of sonication with maceration on antioxidant potency of anthocyanin and karotenoid of tamarillo (Solanum betaceaum Cav.). AgriTECH, 38(3), 304. https://doi.org/10.22146/agritech.28959

Putri, R., Supriyanta, J., & Adhil, D. A. (2021). Formulasi dan uji aktivitas sediaan masker gel peel off ekstrak etanol 70% daun rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) terhadap propionibacterium acnes. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Research, 2(1), 12–20, https://doi.org/10.47065/jharma.v2i1.836

Rao, M. V., Sengar, A. S., C K, S., & Rawson, A. (2021). Ultrasonication - A green technology extraction technique for spices: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 116, 975–991. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.09.006

Rizky, A., Rachmania, F., Nisma, M., Jurusan, F., & Uhamka, J. (2013). Ekstraksi gelatin dari tulang ikan tenggiri melalui proses hidrolisis menggunakan larutan basa. Media Farmasi, 10(2).

Romadhon, R., Sastro, D., & Ayu, K. (2019). The Difference Characteristicsof Collagen from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Bone, Skin, and Scales. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 22(2), 403–410. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v22i2.28832

Tavar, E., Turk, E., & Kreft, S. (2012). Simple modification of karl-fischer titration method for determination of water content in colored samples. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/379724

Tu, Z., Huang, T., Wang, H., Sha, X., Shi, Y., Huang, X., Man, Z., & Li, D. (2015). Physico-chemical properties of gelatin from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) scales by ultrasound-assisted extraction. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(4), 2166–2174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1239-9

Wahyuningtyas, M., Jadid, N., Burhan, P., & Atmaja, L. (2019). Physical and chemical properties of gelatin from red snapper scales : temperature effects. Jurnal Teknik ITS, 8(2), F95–F101.

Wardhani, D. H., Rahmawati, E., Arifin, G. T., & Cahyono, H. (2017). Characteristics of demineralized gelatin from Lizardfish (Saurida spp.) scales using NaOH-NaCl solution. Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan, 6(2), 132–142. https://doi.org/10.15294/jbat.v6i2.9621

Widyasari, R., & Rawdkuen, S. (2014). Extraction and characterization of gelatin from chicken feet by acid and ultrasound assisted extraction.

Wonganu, B. (2020). Application of gelatin derived from waste tilapia scales to an antibiotic hydrogel pad. E3S Web of Conferences, 141. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202014103004




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v18i2.918

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 296 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) - 145 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JPBKP adalah Jurnal Ilmiah yang terindeks :


Creative Commons License

ISSN : 1907-9133(print), ISSN : 2406-9264(online)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.