Identifikasi Molekuler, Analisis Profil Asam Amino, dan Asam Lemak dari Beberapa Teripang Asal Perairan Indonesia

Tiara S. Khatulistiani, Ariyanti S. Dewi, Gintung Patantis

Abstract


Teripang merupakan komoditas penting di Indonesia yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan, namun eksplorasi terhadap kandungan nutrisinya masih terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis, kandungan asam amino, dan asam lemak teripang segar asal perairan Indonesia. Sebanyak enam jenis teripang segar diperoleh dari berbagai lokasi yaitu Lampung, Gorontalo, Maluku Utara, dan Bali. Identifikasi spesies teripang dilakukan secara molekuler dengan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), dan hasil sekuensing dibandingkan dengan basis data Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Analisis profil asam amino dan asam lemak berturut-turut dilakukan menggunakan Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) dan Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa teripang alolo, cera merah, lolosong, cera hitam, dan pasir berturut-turut adalah Bohadschia marmorata, Holothuria edulis, H. impatiens, H. atra, dan H. scabra (alam dan budidaya). Kandungan asam amino non esensial (AANE) pada keenam sampel teripang didominasi oleh glisina dan asam glutamat, sedangkan asam amino esensial (AAE) tertinggi adalah treonina. Total asam amino tertinggi pada H. edulis yaitu 8,87 g/100g. Nilai rasio lisina/arginina pada semua sampel teripang <1,00. Asam lemak total tertinggi pada H. scabra alam dan budidaya (0,41%). H. atra, H. scabra alam, dan B. marmorata didominasi oleh asam lemak jenuh (ALJ), sedangkan H. scabra budidaya, H. edulis dan H. impatiens didominasi oleh asam lemak tak jenuh ganda (ALTJG). Rasio ALTJG/ALJ pada H. edulis, H. scabra budidaya, dan H. impatiens >1,00, sedangkan pada H. atra, H. scabra alam, dan B. marmorata sebesar <1,00. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa H. edulis dan H. impatiens memenuhi persyaratan nutrasetika.

Title: Molecular Identification, Amino Acid, and Fatty Acid Analysis of Sea Cucumbers from Indonesian Waters

Sea cucumber is an important Indonesian commodity with various health benefits. However, the reports on their nutrition content are still limited. This study aimed to identify several Indonesian sea cucumbers and determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The fresh sea cucumbers were obtained from Lampung, Gorontalo, North Maluku, and Bali. Species identification was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The sequencing results were matched to the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) database. The determination of amino acid and fatty acid contents was performed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Alolo, cera merah, lolosong, cera hitam, and pasir were identified as Bohadschia marmorata, Holothuria edulis, H. impatiens, H. atra, and H. scabra (wild and cultured), respectively. Non-essential amino acids (NEAA) in the samples were dominated by glycine and glutamic acid. The highest Essential Amino Acid (EAA) was threonine. H. edulis contained the highest total amino acid, i.e., 8.87 g/100 g. The lysine/arginine ratios in all samples were <1.00. The highest total fatty acid was wild and cultured H. scabra (0.41%). The fatty acids of H. atra, wild H. scabra, and B. marmorata were dominated by saturated fatty acid (SFA). In contrast, in the cultured H. scabra, H. edulis, and H. impatiens were dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)/SFA. The PUFA/SFA ratio of H. edulis and H. impatiens was >1.00, while the H. atra, wild H. scabra, and B. marmorata were <1.00. Based on this result, it is concluded that H. edulis and H. impatiens are potential for nutraceutical ingredients.


Keywords


teripang; asam amino; asam lemak; rasio lisina/arginina; rasio ALTJG/ALJ

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v16i2.775

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