Prevalensi dan Tingkat Kontaminasi Listeria monocytogenes di Tambak dan Unit Pengolahan Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) untuk Pasar Ekspor

Yusma Yennie, Gunawan Gunawan, Farida Ariyani

Abstract


Listeria monocytogenes adalah salah satu bakteri patogen yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit bawaan pangan. Penolakan ekspor produk udang beku Indonesia karena kontaminasi L. monocytogenes masih terjadi yang berdampak pada kerugian material bagi pelaku usaha. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui prevalensi dan tingkat kontaminasi L. monocytogenes pada produk udang beku untuk pasar ekspor. Sampel yang diambil merupakan udang segar dari tambak dan bahan baku dari bagian penerimaan di Unit Pengolahan Ikan (UPI) serta udang beku sebagai produk akhir UPI, dengan menerapkan sistem ketertelusuran. Lokasi penelitian adalah Sumatra Utara (Medan), DKI Jakarta, Jawa Timur (Surabaya dan Banyuwangi), dan Sulawesi Selatan (Makassar). Identifikasi dan enumerasi L. monocytogenes dilakukan dengan metode MPN-PCR dengan target gen hlyA (~456bp). Prevalensi L. monocytogenes pada udang vaname secara keseluruhan sebesar 6,7% (9/135 sampel), dengan prevalensi di masing-masing titik pengambilan sampel berturut-turut 6,1% di tambak, 9,6% di bahan baku, dan 4% di produk akhir, yang merupakan sampel udang dari batch yang sama. Tingkat kontaminasi L. monocytogenes pada sampel udang vaname berkisar 6,1-1.100 APM/g. Persyaratan L. monocytogenes pada bahan pangan adalah negatif/25g, sehingga sampel udang yang terkontaminasi L. monocytogenes tersebut tidak memenuhi persyaratan sebagai pangan yang aman untuk dikonsumsi berdasarkan regulasi yang berlaku di Indonesia maupun di negara lain. Kontaminasi L. monocytogenes pada udang beku kemungkinan berasal dari tambak ataupun lingkungan pengolahan. Penerapan Good Aquaculture Practices (GAP) di lingkungan tambak udang, serta Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) dan Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) di UPI perlu dilakukan dengan benar sebagai upaya pengendalian kontaminasi L. monocytogenes. Selain itu, perlu dilakukan kajian lebih lanjut mengenai sumber dan titik kritis kontaminasi L. monocytogenes di sepanjang rantai pengolahan udang beku mulai dari tambak sampai produk akhir.

Title: Prevalence and Contamination Level of Listeria monocytogenes in Culture and Processing Plant of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for Export Market

Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic bacteria that can cause foodborne illness. Rejection of frozen shrimp exports due to L. monocytogenes contamination still occurs and causes economical losses for the industries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the level of L. monocytogenes contamination in frozen shrimp for export markets. Samples collected were fresh shrimp from shrimp culture and raw material from the receiving point of fish processing plants (UPI), and frozen shrimp as the end product, by implementing a traceability system. Study locations were in North Sumatra (Medan), Special Capital Region of Jakarta, East Java (Surabaya dan Banyuwangi), and South Sulawesi (Makassar). Identification and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were carried out using the MPN-PCR method with the target gene hlyA (~456bp). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in vanname shrimp was 6.7% (9 out of 135 samples), where 6.1%, 9.6%, and 4% of the prevalence were found in samples from shrimp culture, raw material, and end product, respectively. These samples were from the same batch. The contamination level ranged from 6.1 to 1,100 MPN/g. L. monocytogenes in food should be negative/25g, thus the contaminated samples do not meet requirements as safe for human consumption based on food regulation in Indonesia and other countries. Findings from this study suggested that shrimp culture or fish processing environment are potential sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in frozen shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAP) in shrimp culture environment, as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in shrimp processing plant are necessary to control L. monocytogenes contamination. Further studies regarding the sources and critical points of L. monocytogenes contamination throughout the processing of frozen shrimp from shrimp culture to end product are also needed.


Keywords


Listeria monocytogenes; udang vaname; prevalensi; tambak; unit pengolahan ikan

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