Prevalensi Vibrio parahaemolyticus pada Udang Vaname di Unit Pengolahan Ikan Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur

Arifah Kusmarwati, Fairdiana Andayani, Yusma Yennie

Abstract


Vibrio parahaemolyticus patogen selain membahayakan kesehatan manusia juga menjadi alasan penolakan ekspor udang di beberapa negara. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengisolasi, mengidentifikasi dan mengkuantifikasi keberadaan V. parahaemolyticus patogen pada udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) di Unit Pengolahan Ikan (UPI) Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Pengambilan sampel udang vaname dilakukan secara tertelusur di sepanjang rantai pasok pengolahan udang menggunakan metode acak purposif. Sampel udang yang diambil berukuran 20-48 g/ekor (size 21-51). Sebanyak 10 unit sampel dengan berat masing-masing 400-500 g diambil dari setiap tambak udang intensif. Dengan berat yang sama, sebanyak 10-30 sampel diambil dari setiap tahapan pengolahan udang di UPI secara tertelusur. Identifikasi V. parahaemolyticus merujuk pada metode SNI 01-2332.5-2006 dan PCR dengan gen penyandi spesifik toxR, tdh dan trh. Prevalensi V. parahaemolyticus dari total sampel udang yang berasal dari tambak dan UPI Jawa Tengah adalah 17 dari 50 (34%) sampel, di mana empat (4) sampel positif mengandung gen tdh dan tiga (3)  sampel positif mengandung gen trh. Sedangkan prevalensi V. parahaemolyticus dari sampel yang berasal dari Jawa Timur sebesar 29 dari 60 (48,33%) sampel positif PCR, dan tidak terdeteksi V. parahaemolyticus patogen. Oleh karena itu sangat penting dilakukan upaya perbaikan penanganan udang paska panen, khususnya di UPI Jawa Tengah terutama pada titik kritis proses pengolahannya.   

 

Abstract

Apart from being a major cause of foodborne disease in human, pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus also becomes the main reason for shrimp export rejection in several countries. This study was carried out to isolate, identify and quantify the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp with size of 21-51 (20-48 g/shrimp) from ponds and fish processing units in Central and East Java were used in this study. Ten sample units of 400-500 g shrimp were collected from each intensive pond, while 10-30 sample units (400-500 g) were collected from each processing step in the fish processing units. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was identified using PCR with specific coding gen (toxR, tdh and trh) and method recommended by SNI 01-2332.5-2006. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp from Central Java was 17 out of 50 (34%) samples. Amongst these, four (4) were positive tdh and three (3) were positive trh. For sample from East Java, V. parahaemolyticus was found 29 out of 60 (48.33%) and no pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was detected. To avoid future contamination of V. parahaemolyticus, post-harvest handling of shrimp especially in the processing units in Central Java should be improved.


Keywords


bakteri patogen; prevalensi; udang; Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v15i1.570

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