Resistensi Antibiotik pada Vibrio parahaemolyticus dari Udang Vaname Asal Pantai Utara Jawa untuk Pasar Ekspor

Arifah Kusmarwati, Yusma Yenni, Ninoek Indriati

Abstract


Abstrak

Keberadaan bakteri V. parahaemolyticus pada produk udang yang bersifat resisten terhadap antibiotik saat ini menjadi permasalahan serius yang berdampak pada jaminan mutu dan keamanan produk. Hal ini menjadi ancaman serius bagi manusia ketika mengkonsumsi udang tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui resistensi antibiotik dan potensi risiko antibiotik dari bakteri V. parahaemolyticus  pada udang vaname. Pengambilan sampel udang vaname segar dari tambak dilakukan pada musim hujan dan musim kemarau di wilayah Pantai Utara Jawa pada bulan Februari hingga Oktober 2015 dengan metode purposive random sampling. Sebanyak 36 isolat bakteri V. parahaemolyticus yang mewakili 103 sampel udang vaname segar dari tambak udang di Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur telah diuji resistensinya terhadap 8 jenis antibiotik (doksisiklin, nitrofurantoin, siprofloksasin, asam nalidiksat, amoksisilin-asam klavulanat, kloramfenikol, streptomisin, dan eritromisin). Uji kepekaan bakteri terhadap antibiotik dilakukan menggunakan metode Kirby-Bauer. Perhitungan indeks Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) juga dilakukan  untuk mengetahui potensi risiko antibiotik terhadap kesehatan manusia. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa 100% isolat bakteri yang diuji resisten terhadap streptomisin, 90% isolat resisten terhadap eritromisin, dan berikutnya resisten terhadap amoksisilin-asam klavulanat dan nitrofurantoin masing-masing sebesar 83,33% dan 58,33%. Terdapat beberapa antibiotik yang masih mampu melawan bakteri V. parahaemolyticus yaitu siprofloksasin (88,89%), kloramfenikol (81,25%) dan doksisiklin (33,33%). Selain itu, sebanyak 63,89% dari total isolat bakteri tersebut memiliki indeks MAR>0,2 yang mengindikasikan adanya potensi risiko bagi kesehatan. Secara keseluruhan, bakteri V. parahaemolyticus dari sampel yang diambil pada musim hujan menunjukkan resistensi yang lebih tinggi.

 

Antibiotic Resistance in  Vibrio  parahaemolyticusfrom Vannamei Shrimp Originated from Northern Coast of Java for Export Market

Abstract

Recently, the occurence of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria in shrimp products that was resistant to antibiotics became a serious problem that affects quality assurance and product safety. It will be a serious threat to humans when consuming the shrimp product. Research was conducted to know antibiotic resistance and antibiotic risk potency of  V. parahaemolyticus bacteria on vannamei shrimp. Sampling of fresh vannamei shrimp from the ponds was conducted in rainy and dry season in the Northern Coast of Java from February to October 2015 with purposive randomize sampling method. A total of 36 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus bacteria representing 103 samples of fresh vannamei shrimp from shrimp ponds in West Java, Central Java and East Java have been tested for resistance to 8 types of antibiotics (doxycycline, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin-c lavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and erythromycin). Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using Kirby-Bauer method. Calculation of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MAR) was also conducted to determine the potential risks of antibiotics to the human health.The results showed that 100% of isolates tested were resistant to streptomycin, 90% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, and subsequently resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and nitrofurantoin respectively (83.33% and 58.33%). Several antibiotics were still able to resist V. parahaemolyticus i.e ciprofloxacin (88,89%), chloramphenicol (81,25%) and doxycycline (33,33%). In addition, a total 63.89% of bacterial isolates have a MAR index>0,2 indicating potential health risks. Overall,  V.  Parahaemolyticus that was taken from rainy season showed high resistance.



Keywords


multiple antibiotic resistance; udang; tambak;, kloramfenikol

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v12i2.352

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ISSN : 1907-9133(print), ISSN : 2406-9264(online)
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