Risk Profile and Semi Quantitative Risk Probability of Aflatoxin B1 from Aspergillus flavus in a Dried Salted Fish in Several Regions of Java

Izhamil Hidayah, Irma Hermana, Arifah Kusmarwati

Abstract


This study presents a semi-quantitative risk analysis, which determines the probability of aflatoxin B1 exposure from Aspergillus flavus in dried salted fish from the results of research conducted by Indriati about  the prevalence of aflatoxin  B1 in commercial dried fish from some regions of Java. Samples were randomly collected from retailers in Java, such as Banten, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java and East Java, to obtain an approximate level of aflatoxin B1 exposure into Indonesian consumers. The occurrence of the probability of aflatoxin B1 risk from Aspergillus flavus was calculated by statistical, probability approach in @risk version 7.0 software with Monte Carlo simulation. The results of this study showed that the consumption of salted fish was about 3.7 g/capita/day. Hence  there are risks of 7.74 cfu/g A. flavus exposure and 0.7291 ppb aflatoxin B1 exposure in 1 g of a salted fish taken from sampling locations. However this value is still categorized as low risk level.

Keywords


risk analysis, Aspergillus flavus, mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1, dried salted fish

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aisyah, S., Safika dan F. Jamin Aisyah, S.,2015. Penentuan aflatoksin B1 pada pakan olahan kacang tanah dengan menggunakan Enzym-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa). Jurnal Ked. Hewan vol. 9 no.1

Ayotunde, E. O., Ada, F. B., Udeh, G. N., & Otu, V. O. (2016). Weevils and fungi infestation of dried fish: A case study of Uyo local government area, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria.

Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jawa Barat. 2016. Pola Konsumsi Penduduk Jawa Barat

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Luas daerah dan jumlah pulau menurut provinsi tahun 2002-2016.

Bahri S, Maryam R. 2004. Mikotoksin berbahaya dan pengaruhnya terhadap kesehatan hewan dan manusia. Mikologi Kedokteran Indonesia 5:31–43

Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1999. Principles and guidelines for the conduct of microbiological risk assessment. CAC/GL-30.

Dharmaputra, D. S., A.S.R. Putri, I. Retnowati dan S. Ambarwati. 2013. Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in peanuts at various stages of delivery chain in Pati Regency, Central java. Report of ACIAR Project PHT 1997/017. Nusa dua, Bali, 38 p

Diener UL, Davis N. 1969. Aflatoxin Formation by Aspergillus flavus. Di dalam: Goldblatt LA, editor. Aflatoxin Scientific Background, Control, and Implications.New York: Academic Pr.

Groopman JD, Kensler TW, Wild CP. 2008. Protective interventions to prevent aflatoxin-induced carcinogenesis in developing countries. Annu Rev Public Health 29:187–203.

Henry SH, Bosch FX, Troxell TC, Bolger PM. 1999. Policy forum: public health. Reducing liver cancer—global control of aflatoxin. Science 286(5449):2453–2454.

Indriati, N., Hermana, I., Hidayah, I., Rahayu, E.S. 2017. Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 in Commercial Dried Fish from Some Regions of Java. Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology 12 (3) 2017, 107-115

International Programme on Chemical Safety and WHO. 1998. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants . WHO Food additives Series 40.

IARC. 1988. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. LYON: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, PRESENT. (Multivolume work).

Ismail, S.A.S.2013. Control of xerophilic mould in traditional Egyptian salted fish, “Molouha”. International Food Research Journal 20(4): 1827-1831 (2013)

Kamil, ZR.,Putra, YDD., Sidar, A., Setyaningsih, W., Rahayu. E.S. 2016. Mold contamination and aflatoxin B1 level in salted fish comodities. Proceedings International Food Conference 2016.Surabaya, 20-21 October 2016. Hal 261-268

Kirk GD, Bah E, Montesano R. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of human liver cancer: insights into etiology, pathogenesis and prevention from The Gambia, West Africa. Carcinogenesis 27(10):2070–2082

Kuang S-Y, Lekawanvijit S, Maneekarn N, Thongsawat S, Brodovicz K, Nelson K, et al. 2005. Hepatitis B 1762T/1764A mutations, hepatitis C infection, and codon 249 p53 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas from Thailand. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(2):380–384.

Kulshrestha R, Gupta CP, Shukla G, Kundul MG, Satyendra PB, dan Katiyar CK. 2008. The effect of water activity and storage temperature on the growth of Aspergillus flavus in medical herbs. Planta Med. 74(10):1308-1315. Doi:10.1055/s-20081074561

Lanyasunya, T.P., L.W. Wamae, H.H. Msa, O. Olowofeso and I.K. Lokwaleput, 2005. The Risk of mycotoxins contamination of dairy feed and milk on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4(3): 162-169

Makfoed, D. 1993. Mikotoksin Pangan. Pusat Antar Universitas Pangan dan Gizi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Maryam, R. 2007. Metode deteksi mikotoksin. J. Mikot. Ked Indon vol 7, No.1-2: 2007, 12-24

Mishra, H.N. and C. Das. 2003. A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutrit. 43(3):245-264.

Ominski KH, Marquardt RR, Sinha RN, Abramson D. 1994. Ecological Aspects of Growth and Mycotoxin Production by Storage Fungi. Di dalam: Miller JD, Trenholm HL, editor. Mycotoxins In Grain: Compounds Other Than Aflatoxin,Minnesota: Eagan Pr. hlm 287–312.

Pitt, I.J and Hocking, A.D. 2009. Fungi and Food Spoilage. 3rd Ed. Springer, New York: 519 p

Plymoth A, Viviani S, Hainaut P. 2009. Control of hepatocellular carcinoma through Hepatitis B vaccination in areas of high endemicity: perspectives for global liver cancer prevention. Cancer Lett 286(1):15–21.

Prakash, S. (2011). Microbial Quality of Salted and Sun Dried Sea Foods of Tuticorin Dry Fish Market, Southeast Coast of India. International Journal of Microbiological Research, 2, 188- 195.

Rahmadi, A. dan G.H. Fleet, 2008.The occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Cocoa Beans from Indonesia and Queensland, Australia. Proceeding of International Seminar on Food Science, University of Soegiyapranata, Semarang, Indonesia.

Rahayu, E.S, Sardjono, Samson, R.A. 2014. Jamur Benang (Mold) pada Bahan Pangan. PT. Kanisius. Yogyakarta

Rodrigues P, Venaˆncio A, Kozakiewicz Z, Lima N. 2009. A polyphasic approach to the identification of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillussection Flavi. Int J Food Microbiol 29:187–193, doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.11.023

Sam J, F., I Jeyasanta K., P. Edward J.K. 2015. Aflatoxins Investigation on Dried Fishes of Tuticorin, South East Coast of India. Journal of Foodborne and Zoonotic Diseases 3(4):49-62.

Seila, NI. 2014. Determination odf Fungi and Factors Associated With Their Growth On Sun Dried Rastrineobola argentea IN Gucha South, Kisii County, Kenya. Thesis. Department of Microbiology, Kenyatta University

SNI 7388-2009. Batas Cemaran Mikroba dalam makanan. Badan Standar Nasional. Jakarta

Siregar, D. 2004. Ikan asin. Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Sistem Informasi Diseminasi Data dan Statistik Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2018. Produksi Perikanan Tangkap.

Sulieman, A.E., Hassan, Z.M.A., Elkhalifa, E.A., 2014. Microbial Safety of Dried Fish Meat Kejeik Produced in Sudan. Food and Nutrition Sciences 5, 606613

Syarief R, Ega L, Nurwitri CC. 2003. Mikotoksin Bahan Pangan.Bogor: IPB Pr

Wang, J. and X. Liu. 2007. Contamination of aflatoxins in different kinds of foods in China. Biomed. Environment. Sci. 20:483-487.

Wheeler, K.A., A.D. Hocking, J.I Pitt, and A. M Anggawati.1986. Fungi Associated with Indonesiadried fish. Food Microbial. 3: 351-357.

Wild CP, Montesano R. 2009. A model of interaction: aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention. Cancer Lett 286(1):22–28.

Wild CP, Gong YY. 2010. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue.Carcinogenesis 31:71–82

Wrather, J.A. and L.E. Sweet, 2006. Aflatoxin in Corn. Jefferson City: Delta Research Centre.Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. MU College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources

World Health Organization. 2011.Risk assessment of Vibrioparahaemolyticus in seafood

Yenny. 2006. Aflatoksin dan Aflatoksikosis pada Manusia. Universa Medicine 25(1):41-52.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/squalen.v13i2.356

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

ISSN : 2089-5690(print), E-ISSN : 2406-9272(online)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.