Pembentukan Formaldehida Alami dan Penurunan Mutu Ikan Kerapu Cantik ( Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. microdon) selama Penyimpanan pada Suhu Beku -- Formation of Natural Formaldehyde and Deterioration of Cantik Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. microdon) during Frozen Storage

Giri Rohmad Barokah, Ajeng Kurniasari Putri, Umi Anissah, Jovita Tri Murtini

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Formaldehida merupakan bahan yang dilarang digunakan sebagai bahan tambahan pangan (BTP) berdasarkan Permenkes No 033 Th 2012. Namun demikian, pada beberapa produk pangan termasuk ikan, formaldehida dapat terbentuk secara alami karena terjadinya proses penurunan mutu melalui penguraian secara enzimatis. Pembentukan formaldehida alami pada ikan terjadi melalui proses degradasitrimethylamine oxide  (TMAO) oleh enzim TMAO-ase. Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut, dilakukan penelitian untuk mengkaji pembentukan formaldehida dan beberapa parameter penurunan kualitas pada ikan kerapu cantik (Epinephelus. fuscoguttatus × E. microdon) selama penyimpanan beku. Penelitian dilakukan melaui kuantifikasi pembentukan formaldehida alami,  total volatile base(TVB), trimetilamin (TMA), dan TMAO dalam sampel ikan kerapu cantik sesaat setelah kematian dan selama penyimpanan beku dalam kurun waktu lima bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan TMA, TVB dan formaldehida alami antar individu sampel ikan kerapu cantik dalam populasi yang sama memiliki perbedaan yang nyata. Pembentuk an formaldehida alami dalam sampel ik an k erapu cantik selama lima bulan penyimpanan pada kondisi beku membentuk pola parabolik, di mana kadar formaldehida meningkat seiring waktu dan mencapai nilai maksimum hingga bulan ke-2 kemudian menurun hingga bulan ke-5. Pembentukan formaldehida alami dalam sampel ikan kerapu cantik selama peyimpanan dalam suhu beku berkorelasi positif dengan proses penurunan mutunya berdasarkan parameter TVB dan TMA.

 

 ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde is banned to be used as food additive under the Ministry of Health Regulation Number 033/2012. However, in some food products including fish, formaldehyde can be formed naturally due to deterioration process through degradation enzy matically. Endogenous formaldehyde in fish formed through degradation of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) by TMAO-ase. Based on these, a study on the formation of formaldehyde and some deterioration parameters of cantik grouper (Epinephelus  fuscoguttatus ×  E.  microdon) during frozen storage condition has been conducted. The research was conducted by observing the immediate post mortem formation of natural formaldehyde, total volatile base (TVB), trimethylamine (TMA) and TMAO of cantik grouper and during frozen storage within five months. The results showed that TMA, TVB and natural formaldehyde among individual samples of cantik groupers in the same population were significantly different. The formation of natural formaldehyde in cantik grouper within five months frozen storage form a parabolic pattern, in which formaldehyde content increased and reached a maximum point in the 2nd month and then decreased until the 5th month. The formation of natural formaldehyde in cantik grouper samples during frozen storage positively correlated with their deterioration processes based on TVB and TMA parameters.


Keywords


formaldehida; penurunan mutu; kerapu cantik; penyimpanan beku

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jpbkp.v13i1.511

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ISSN : 1907-9133(print), ISSN : 2406-9264(online)
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